HE11 – Training and Testing of Emergency and Abnormal Procedures in Helicopters

14 December 2015 – This leaflet provide guidance and safety tips for pilots, instructors and examiners on the subject of training and testing of emergency and abnormal procedures. Subjects include theoretical knowledge training, Human Factors, Threat and Error Management (TEM), Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM), Risk Management, flight training, scenario-based testing, hazards involved in simulating systems failures and malfunctions during flight, autorotation and Simulated Engine Off Landing (SEOL), modern technology helicopters (Glass Cockpit / automation), and upset / unusual attitude training.

Download leaflet (Master version)

French: HE11_Training_and_Testing_of_Emergency_and_Abnormal_Procedures-FR

German: HE11_Training_and_Testing_of_Emergency_and_Abnormal_Procedures-DE

Spanish: HE11_Training_and_Testing_of_Emergency_and_Abnormal_Procedures-ES

Category French, General, German, Spanish, Training

HE10 – Teaching and Testing in Flight Simulation Training Devices (FSTD)

18 December 2015 – This leaflet provides guidance to helicopter instructors and examiners on how to conduct aircrew training and testing in FSTDs, and provides basic principles on how to get the best use of this invaluable training asset. The benefits of FSTDs are covered in the previously published leaflet HE6 “Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training”.
The leaflet HE10 addresses additional aspects, such as FSTDs and training credits definitions, types of training and testing permitted on FSTDs, teaching, examining and testing techniques and competences, the different types of examiner certificates, basic principles and good practices, and differences between helicopter and FSTD.

Download leaflet (Master version)

French: HE10_Teaching_and_Testing_in_Flight_Simulation_Training_Devices_(FSTD)-FR

German: HE10_Teaching_and_Testing_in_Flight_Simulation_Training_Devices_(FSTD)-DE

Spanish: HE10_Teaching_and_Testing_in_Flight_Simulation_Training_Devices_(FSTD)-ES

Category French, General, German, Spanish, Training

HE9 Automation and Flight Path Management

28 September 2015 – This document identifies current best practice on automation and flight path management. Over the years helicopter manufacturers have used more automation to assist crews and reduce manual flying workload. The rapid advances in technology have given rise to significant capabilities. Automation has contributed substantially to the sustained improvement of flight safety. Automation increases the timeliness and precision of routine procedures reducing the opportunity for errors and the associated risks to the safety of the flight. The helicopter community has however experienced incidents and accidents where automation and complex flight displays have been significant factors. This leaflet reviews the basics of automation and provides a list of principles for optimal use of automation and flight path management.

French: HE9_Automation_and_Flight_Path_Management-FR

German: HE9_Automation_and_Flight_Path_Management-DE

Spanish: HE9_Automation_and_Flight_Path_Management-ES

Category French, General, German, Spanish, Technology

EHEST Publishes Helicopter Instructor Guide

2 July 2015 – One if the important ingredients for flight safety is a properly resourced training sector. Some of those resources can be quite fundamental. For example, an important contribution to training is for flight instructors to have available to them a basic guide to flying training. In response to this need, EHEST contacted the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) which has developed a flying instructors’ manual incorporating extensive feedback from the helicopter training community. CASA has kindly made this manual available to EHEST for dissemination. Some changes have been incorporated to reflect European terminology and syllabus contents. The EHEST Helicopter Flight Instructor Manual is comprehensive and fully illustrated. Part 1 addresses Principles and Methods of Instruction and Part 2 provides Ground and Air Instruction Exercises. It will be a great resource for the European flight instructors, who may freely download and use this manual.

Users are encouraged to provide feedback to ensure that any further revisions meet industry needs. You can email your feedback to us at: ehest@easa.europe.eu.


Category Featured News, Training

HE8 – The Principles of Threat and Error Management (TEM) for Helicopter Pilots, Instructors and Training Organisations

12 December 2014 – The European Helicopter Safety Team (EHEST) today published a new safety promotion leaflet on  the Principles of Threat and Error Management (TEM) for Helicopter Pilots, Instructors and Training Organisations (HE 8). Data analysis  confirms that a continuing significant number of helicopter accidents occur due to poor decision making and human performance made both prior and during flight. The aim of this leaflet is to introduce and illustrate the concept of TEM to flight crews and training organisations. Leaflet HE 8 is part of a series of safety leaflets and publications aimed at sharing good practices, which are freely available on the Training and Safety Promotion section of the EHEST website. Click here to download the leaflet.



Category Decision making, Featured News, General, Japanese, News, Spanish, Training

HE 7 – Techniques for Helicopter Operations in Hilly and Mountainous Terrain

13 May 2014 – The European Helicopter Safety Team (EHEST) today published a new safety promotion leaflet on techniques for helicopter operations in hilly and mountainous terrain. The leaflet aims to help pilots and instructors understand basic principles, threats, errors and possible undesirable aircraft states when flying in mountainous terrain. Developed in partnership with major stakeholders, the leaflet also provides guidance to manage the risks associated with these operations.  Click here to download the leaflet.




Category Decision making, Featured News, German, Japanese, News, Spanish

Safety Promotion Leaflet on Using Advanced Navigation Technology Safely

The European General Aviation Safety Team (EGAST) published a new Safety Promotion Leaflet on Using Advanced Navigation Technology Safely. The market for onboard navigation technology is evolving quickly. The immediate potential safety benefits are numerous including reduced workload and unprecedented information to enhance situational awareness but the technology may also come with hidden risks including overreliance on systems and distraction. This Leaflet, which is also of relevance for the helicopter community, intends to raise awareness on potential traps and share good practices for better and safer use of advanced technology for navigation in day VFR.

Category Featured News, General, News, Training

HE 6 – Advantages of simulators in Helicopter Flight Training

9 July 2013 - The EHEST publishes today a new Safety promotion leaflet on the advantages of simulators in Helicopter Flight Training. The purpose of this leaflet is to highlight the various helicopter flight simulation training devices available and to also review the additional training and safety benefits related to recent technological and regulatory developments.




Category General, Training

HE5 Training Leaflet – Risk management in training

March 2013 – EHEST published their latest Safety Leaflet  “HE5 – Risk Management in Training for Helicopter Pilots and Instructors”. The document was developed in partnership with major stakeholders and provides tools and methods to improve risk management in training. Training for autorotation is used as a practical example to illustrate the process.



Category Featured News, Spanish, Training

Safety Management Toolkit – August 2012

2 August 2012 - EHEST released a comprehensive Safety Management Toolkit developed with consideration to EU rules on Air Operations (Annex III, Part ORO Subpart GEN Section II Management System) which are expected be finalised later this year. The Toolkit was designed for Complex Operators and is particularly useful for those with limited experience of Safety Management Systems (SMS). It consists of a Safety Management Manual (SMM), an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) and a Safety Management Database User Guide.

The SMM is a sample manual designed to assist operators in creating their own manuals, which must be adapted to reflect individual needs, nature of operations and procedures. Since having a ERP will be required under future rules, the EHEST response plan in this Toolkit aims to help organisation to respond in the case of accidents, serious incidents or any event triggering a crisis.

Finally, the Safety Management Database User Guide provides example registers of typical helicopter hazards and risks in Commercial Air Transport (CAT) operations, a unique feature provided by the EHEST for safety management purposes.

Access the EHEST SMS webpage page

Category Featured News, General, Management System (SMS)

HE4 Training Leaflet – Single Pilot Decision Making

June 2012: Research into the human factors related to aircraft accidents and incidents has highlighted Decision Making as a crucial element. Pilots intend to fly safely, but they sometimes make errors. It has been observed that the majority of fatal crashes are attributable to decision errors rather than to perceptual or execution errors.

While we cannot eliminate human error, a thorough understanding of human factors principles can lead to appropriate strategies, means and practical tools to prevent most errors, better detect and manage them, and mitigate their adverse impact on aviation safety.

This leaflet is looking at:

  • Human Factors Affecting Decision Making,
  • Decision Making,
  • Decision Error Factors,
  • Decision Making Models.

This leaflet is part of a series of safety leaflets and publications aimed at sharing good practices. These leaflets are accompanied by web-based training materials, including videos, which are freely available on the Training and Safety Promotion section of the EHEST website.



English: HE4_Single Pilot Decision Making v1

Japanese: HE4_Single Pilot Decision Making JA


Category Leaflets and Toolkits

HE3 Helicopter Off Airfield Landing Site Operations

Jan 2012 - The helicopters ability to approach, manoeuvre, land and take-off from an off airfield Landing Site or unprepared Landing Site is one of the most important aspects of helicopters operations.

The various landing sites such as hotels, golf courses, sporting venues, etc can vary in their dimensions, approaches, hazards, elevation, and location, the same basic principles should be employed.

Landing sites that are remote from an airfield offer various challenges to the pilot and consequently have resulted in a significant number of accidents. Unlike at an airfield there is generally, little or no assistance in the assessment of wind, guidance on appropriate approach directions or information on other traffic. Hazards not normally experienced at an airfield such as wires, obstructions, uneven landing ground, trees, Foreign Object Damage, livestock and pedestrians are quite likely to be found and require a heightened degree of situational awareness by the pilot who needs to expect the unexpected!

The brochure HE3 was developped by the EHEST Team and covers the:

  • Planning and Preparation
  • Landing Site Identification
  • Landing Site Recce
  • Types of Approach
  • Manoeuvring in the LS
  • Departure
  • Pilot Errors

English: HE3 Helicopter Off Airfield Landing Site Operations

Japanese: HE3 Helicopter Off Airfield Landing Site Operations

Category Featured News, Training

HE2 Helicopter Airmanship leaflet published on Dec 2011

Airmanship is defined by EASA Part FCL as: “The consistent use of good judgement and well-developed knowledge, skills and attitudes to accomplish flight objectives.”.  The EHEST review of helicopter accidents 2000 to 2005 revealed 140 general aviation helicopter accidents in Europe identifying the following (causal and contributing) factors:

  • Pilot decision making and risk assessment
  • Mission Planning
  • Pilot misjudged own limitations/capabilities, overconfidence
  • Pilot inexperienced
  • Inadequate consideration of weather/wind
  • Failed to follow procedures
  • Pilot control/ handling deficiencies
  • Failed to recognise cues to terminate current course of action or manoeuvre
  • Inadvertent entry into IMC, vision restricted by meteorological conditions
  • Wilful disregard for rules and SOPs

The majority of these factors are related to airmanship.

Comprehensive knowledge, careful pre-flight preparations, frequent flying practice and avoidance of complacency are the best insurance against becoming an accident statistic.

English: HE2_leaflet_helicopter_airmanship_v1

Japanese: HE2_leaflet_helicopter_airmanship_JA

Category Featured News, General, Training

Helicopter ground operations signals published on Dec 2011

the Team published a simple Helicopter ground operations signals leaflet that can be viewed and downloaded below.






Category Featured News, General, Training

Pre-flight planning Checklist

The EHSIT Training team propose an example of pre-flight planning checklist. Note that this is an example that needs to be adapted to your operation.

EHEST Pre-flight planning Checklist

Category Training

HE1 Training Leaflet – Safety considerations

This leaflet is the first in a series of safety related leaflets and publications aiming at improving safety by sharing good practises. These leaflets will be accompanied by web based training materials including videos, which will be available freely to all pilots in order to enhance flight safety by addressing recognised training related issues.

Data from the EHSAT review confirm that a continuing significant number of helicopter accidents is due to pilot disorientation in the Degraded Visual Environment, Vortex Ring State, Loss of Tail Rotor Effectiveness and Static & Dynamic Rollover. Therefore, the aim of this leaflet is to improve the safety of helicopter operations by providing pilots with the relevant information for each of these topics in order to allow a basic understanding of the causes, the prevention and the recovery actions thereby enabling pilots to make better, more informed decisions. This Leaflet covers the following subjects:

  • Degraded Visual Environment (DVE)
  • Vortex Ring State
  • Loss of Tail Rotor Effectiveness (LTE)
  • Static & Dynamic Rollover
  • Pre-flight planning Checklist

English: HE1_Leaflet_safety_considerations_Training-UK (master version)

German:  HE1_Leaflet_safety_considerations_Training-DE

Italian: HE1_Leaflet_safety_considerations_Training-IT

Spanish: HE1_Leaflet_safety_considerations_Training-ES

Chinese: HE1_Leaflet_safety_considerations_Training-ZH

Portuguese/Brazilian: HE1_Leaflet_safety_considerations_Training-PT

Japanese: HE1_Leaflet_safety_considerations_Training-JA

Category Featured News, General, German, Italian, Portuguese/Brazilian, Spanish, Training

US IHST – Flight Data Monitoring Toolkit for helicopter operators

This document was prepared by the US International Helicopter Safety Team (IHST) and is designed to provide a summary of existing flight data monitoring guidance and to serve as a step-by-step guide to helicopter operators considering or currently implementing a Helicopter Flight Data Monitoring (HFDM) program in their organization. It is also intended to address some unique challenges specific to helicopter operations.

Additional HFDM guidance and resources are included in the Appendices section or as Attachments to this document.

  1. HFDM Toolkit and attachments
  2. Links to HFDM resources
  3. Safety Management Systems (SMS) Toolkit
  4. Training Toolkit
  5. Other valuable safety information



Category General, Other sources

US IHST – Safety Management System Tool Kit

The US JHSIT prepared this toolkit to help US based-organizations to understand the fundamentals of safety management system. It serves as a guide to implement and manage an SMS, tailored to all size organizations.

SMS Tool Kit – SMS Tool Kit-2nd Edition

This SMS document is an advanced, integrated method of implementing standards identified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the FAA Flight Standards Service (AFS-900). The toolkit provides assistance for organizations to achieve improved safety performance using a “performance based approach.” It encourages organizations to choose the solution that best suits their needs and performance objectives. The toolkit helps the organization determine their level of compliance and to develop an action plan that includes the necessary components.
The introduction addresses the case for a Safety Management System (SMS) and describes what an SMS is.

Chapter 1: Identifies policies, procedures, and human responsibilities that organizations use to express and achieve their desired level of safety. Policies characterize the nature and performance of an organization, and procedures define how to execute policies. The section on human responsibilities identifies the duties, responsibilities, authority, goals and objectives that impact an SMS.

Chapter 2: Identifies the theories and philosophy behind creating an SMS program that emphasizes the use of 12 core elements in designing an effective SMS plan. These elements include the objectives and expectations which are core to a robust and functional SMS.

Chapter 3: Organized, systematic guidelines are provided that can be followed over time to implement an SMS. A checklist for the 12 elements will help to guide organizations in SMS preparation.

Chapter 4: Contains a variety of resources to assist in designing an SMS manual for organizations wishing to establish a Safety Management System. It includes a definition of terms, checklists and a CD containing examples of forms used in implementing and managing an SMS.

Category Other sources